Complete List of Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Programmers

In this blog post you can find list of Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Programmers.  This list can be referred when you are working on Linux or UNIX based operating systems. The first version of Unix was developed by Bell Labs (part of AT&T) in 1969, making it more than forty years old and one of the few cases of a computer technology that has survived more than a decade. Its roots go back to when computers were large and rare, time on them very expensive and shared between many users. Unix was designed from the beginning to have multiple users working simultaneously.

If you are just getting started with Linux and looking to polish and improve your skills, this list of useful Ubuntu Linux Commands will provide you with everything you need. In addition, this list of Unix commands provide a good introduction to a more advanced understanding of the operating system and will give you the keys to go further.

Complete List of Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for System
Command to Shutdown the System without Reboot in Linux.shutdown -h now
Command to Stop all processes immediately in Linux.halt
Command to Shutdown the system in 5 minutes and Reboot the System in Linux.shutdown -r 5
Command to Shutdown the System with Reboot in Linux.shutdown -r now
Command to Stop all processes and then Reboot the System in Linux.reboot
Command to Run any command as Super User aka Root/Administrator in Linux.sudo
Command to Run GNOME application or file as Super User in Linux.gksudo
Forgotten that your previous command requires sudo privilages, this will run that command again except with sudo.sudo !!

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for File Management
Command to List files in Current Directory using long format in Linux.ls -l
Command to List files in current directory using long format, produce file & directory sizes in K/M/G file sizes in Linux.ls -lh
Command to List files just same as ‘ls -lh’ but shows hidden files. (like .bashrc and .htaccess or .conkyrc)  in Linux.ls -lha
Command to List files in current directory and indicate the file type in Linux.ls -F
Command to List all files in current directory in long format and display in columns in Linux.ls -laC
Command to Remove a file or directory in Linux.rm name
Command to Kill off an entire directory and all it’s included files and sub-directoriesnever run: ‘ rm -rf / ‘ without any reason!  in Linux.rm -rf name
Command to Copy the file called filename to the /dirname directory in Linux.cp filename /dirname
Command to “Save As” – duplicate the file, save it under a different name in Linux.cp filename filename2

Command to Move the file called filename to the /dirname directory in Linux.mv filename /dirname
Command to Rename a file entirely in Linux.mv filename1 file01
Command to Display the file specified in Linux.cat
Command to Nano file editor – CTRL-X to quit, CTRL-O to save – requires sudo to edit system files in Linux.nano file.t
Command to Display man pages containing keyword in Linux.man -k keyword
Command to Display the file called filetoview one page at a time, proceed to next page using the spacebar in Linux.more filetoview
Command to Display the first 10 lines of the file called filetoview in Linux.head filetoview
Command to Display the first 20 lines of the file called filetoview in Linux.head -20 filetoview
Command to Display the last 10 lines of the file called filetoview in Linux.tail filetoview
Command to Display the last 20 lines of the file called filetoview in Linux.tail -20 filetoview
Command to Scroll through the contents of a text file. Press q when done in Linux.less file.txt
Command that renders an output and can be “piped” into a file specified. Press q when done in Linux.command > file.txt
Command to Hide file in Linux (Add a fuu-stop or dot before the file name).myhiddenfile.txt

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Installing Software Packages
Command to Install the package in Linux.sudo dpkg -i {.deb package}
Command to Upgrade package if it is installed else install a fresh copy of package in Linux.sudo dpkg -i {.deb package}
Command to Install all packages recursively from directory in Linux.sudo dpkg -R {Directory-name}
Command to Remove/Delete an installed package except configuration files in Linux.sudo dpkg -r {package}
Command to Remove/Delete everything including configuration files in Linux.sudo dpkg -P {package}
Command to List all installed packages, along with package version and short description in Linux.sudo dpkg -l
Command to List individual installed packages, along with package version and short description in Linux.sudo dpkg -l {package}
Command to Find out files are provided by the installed package i.e. list where files were installed in Linux.sudo dpkg -L {package}
Command to List files provided (or owned) by the Command to package i.e. List all files inside debian .deb package file, very useful to find where files would be installed in Linux.sudo dpkg -c {.Deb package}
Command to Find what package owns the file i.e. find out what package does file belong in Linux.sudo dpkg -S {/path/to/file}
Command to Display details about package package group, version, maintainer, Architecture, display depends packages, description etc in Linux.sudo dpkg -p {package}
Command to Find out if Debian package is installed or not (status) in Linux.sudo dpkg -s {package} | grep status
Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Downloading and  Installing Software Packages
Command to Install a package and its dependencies, if any in Linux.sudo apt-get install
Command to Remove the specified package in Linux.sudo apt-get remove
Command to Update the APT package index (A list of all packages available from its repositories) in Linux.sudo apt-get update
Command to Upgrade all the installed packages on the current system in Linux.sudo apt-get upgrade
Command to verify system’s integrity using apt in Linux.sudo apt-get check
Command to remove the downloaded packages from the cache directory freeing some disk space at your system in Linux.sudo apt-get clean
Command to auto-remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for some package and that are no more needed in Linux.sudo apt-get autoremove
Command to auto-remove packages, when you remove the unwanted application in Linux.sudo apt-get autoremove
Command to Fix broken packages – installation failures, incomplete packages and such in Linux.sudo apt-get install -f
Command to install packages without being prompted in Linux.sudo apt-get -y
Command to install base packages and to upgrade everything installing new packages if needed in Linux.sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
Command to search the apt database for any packages related to ‘music’ in Linux.sudo apt-cache search music

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Network

Command to ping host and output results in Linux.ping host/ip
Command to get whois information for domain in Linux.whois domain.com
Command to get DNS information for domain in Linux.dig domain.com
Command to reverse lookup host in Linux.dig -x host
Command to download file in Linux.wget http://domain/file.t
Command to Resume/Continue a stopped download or partially downloaded file in Linux.wget -c http://domain/file.t
Command to If installed, this provides a text only based browser in Linux.lynx
Command to Display information about network adapters. Apply adapter name for details about that specific adapter in Linux.ifconfig
Command to Display wireless network information in Linux.iwconfig

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands and Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard Shortcut to halt or cancel the current command  in Linux.Ctrl+C
Keyboard Shortcut to stop the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the backgroundCtrl+Z
Keyboard Shortcut to log out of current session, similar to exitCtrl+D
Keyboard Shortcut to erase one word in the current lineCtrl+W
Keyboard Shortcut to erase the whole lineCtrl+U
Keyboard Shortcut to bring up a recent commandCtrl+R
Keyboard Shortcut to repeat the last command – Up arrow key also does the same job.!!
Keyboard Shortcut to log out of current sessionexit
Keyboard Shortcut to Access Console terminals tty1-6CTRL+ALT+F1 – 6
Keyboard Shortcut to X Screens, Assigned for GUI software, like GNOME, KDE and suchCTRL+ALT+F7 – 12

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for System Info
Command to show the current date and time in Linux.date
Command to show show this month’s calendar in Linux.cal
Command to show show current uptime in Linux.uptime
Command to show display who is online in Linux.w
Command to show who you are logged in as in Linux.whoami
Command to show display information about user in Linux.

finger user
Command to show show kernel information in Linux.uname -a
Command to show Full release info of any LSB distribution in Linux.lsb_release -a
Command to show cpu information in Linux.cat /proc/cpuinfo
Command to show memory information in Linux.cat /proc/meminfo
Command to show the manual for command in Linux.man command
Command to show disk usage in Linux.df
Command to Show disk usage, but with sizes human readable in Linux.df -h
Command to show directory space usage in Linux.du
Command to show memory and swap usage in Linux.free
Command to show your last logins in Linux.last
Command to show info about disk sda – Note: Other drives like sdb sdc sdd sde sdf and so on can be used in Linux.sudo hdparm -i /dev/sda
Command to show a speed test on disk sda in Linux.sudo hdparm -tT /dev/sda
Command to show Test for unreadable blocks on disk sda in Linux.sudo badblocks -s /dev/sda

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Services
Command to Restart the service specified in Linux.sudo service (name) restart
Command to Stop the service in Linux.sudo service (name) stop
Command to Start the service – provides a process number in Linux.sudo service (name) start
Command to Provide status of service either stop or start in Linux.sudo service (name) status
Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for SSH (Secure Shell)
Command to Log into a remote address – standard (default port 22) in Linux.ssh user@ipaddress
Command Same as above, but different method in Linux.ssh -l user ipaddress
Command to Log into a remote address via external port 23 in Linux.ssh -p 23 user@ipaddress
Command to Add your key to host for user to enable a keyed or password-less login in Linux.ssh-copy-id user@host
Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Screen
Command to Open a new screen with an new pid in Linux.screen
Command to Attach to active screen or produces list of numerous screens with pids  in Linux.screen -x
Command to Attach to a specific screen out of (for example) 5 screens, assigned with pid 3042 in Linux.screen -x 3042

Useful Ubuntu Linux Keyboard Shortcuts for Screen
Command for help and summary of functions in Linux.Ctrl-a ?
Command to create an new window (terminal) in Linux.Ctrl-a c
Command to switch to the next or previous window in the list, by number in Linux.Ctrl-a Ctrl-n and Ctrl-a Ctrl-p to switch
Command to switch to the corresponding window in Linux where N is a number from 0 to 9.Ctrl-a Ctrl-N
Command to get a navigable list of running windows in Linux.Ctrl-a “
Command to clear a missed Ctrl-a in Linux.Ctrl-a a
Command to disconnect and leave the session running in the background in Linux.Ctrl-a Ctrl-d
Command to lock the screen terminal with a password in Linux.

Ctrl-a x
Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for Compression
Command to create a tar named file.tar containing files in Linux.tar cf file.tar files
Command to extract the files from file.tar in Linux.tar xf file.tar
Command to create a tar with Gzip compression in Linux.tar czf file.tar.gz files
Command to extract a tar using Gzip in Linux.tar xzf file.tar.gz
Command to create a tar with Bzip2 compression in Linux.tar cjf file.tar.bz2
Command to extract a tar using Bzip2 in Linux.tar xjf file.tar.bz2
Command to Decompress the files contained in the zipped and tarred archive called archive in Linux.tar -zxvf archive.tar.gz
tar -zxvf archive.tgz

Useful Ubuntu Linux Commands for File Integrity and Security
Command to Generate an md5 checksum from file in Linux.md5deep file.tar.gz
Command to Generate an sha1 checksum from file in Linux.sha1 file.tar.gz
Command to Generate a RIPEMD-160 checksum from file in Linux.rmd160 file.tar.gz
Command for stealthy File Integrity Checker in Linux.stealth
Command for steganography hiding tool in Linux.steghide
Command to Securely wipe a file from your hard drive. May require installation in Linux.wipe privateinfo.doc
Command to remove each specified file by overwriting, renaming, and truncating it before unlinking. May require installation in Linux.srm privateinfo.doc
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The first version of Unix was developed by Bell Labs (part of AT&T) in 1969, making it more than forty years old and one of the few cases of a computer technology that has survived more than a decade. Its roots go back...Latest technology news